Nutrition

8 Foods that Keep You Fuller Longer

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By Lexi Petronis

Filling Foods

Has your stomach ever growled in anticipation of lunch, even though you just ate breakfast? At some point, we’ve all fallen victim to an unexplained raging appetite, which can lead to eating snacks that are high in calories, sugar and fat-and, of course, weight gain. But instead of popping pills that’ll supposedly curb hunger, turn to something surprising: food. It sounds contradictory, but eating can actually suppress your appetite-as long as you choose the right foods. Try one of these extra-satisfying eats to keep your appetite in check.

Eggs
Eggs
There’s a reason people are clucking about eggs lately. A recent study from the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, LA, found that overweight people who ate eggs for breakfast take longer to get hungry later. The research participants had lower levels of ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating hormone that tells the brain to eat, and higher levels of PPY, a hormone that helps stomachs feel full. “Eggs are a perfect combination of protein and fat, so they’re more satisfying than other breakfast foods,” says Julie Kaye, MPH, RD, CDN, a registered dietitian in New York City. Worried about cholesterol? Don’t be. “Despite the high content in yolks, eggs aren’t the main culprit in raising blood cholesterol,” explains Kaye. If you’re still concerned, try liquid egg whites, which also contain protein and can stave off hunger.

Avocados
Avocados
The green, creamy flesh of an avocado isn’t just tasty-it’s also filled with fiber and heart-healthy monounsaturated fat. In other words, avocados might be the perfect fill-you-up food. “Foods high in fiber and rich in fat take longer to digest, allowing you to experience less overall hunger-and possibly take in fewer calories,” says Erin Palinski, RD, CDE, LDN, CPT, author of the forthcoming Belly Fat Diet for Dummies. Research also shows that avocados’ oleic acid, a monounsaturated fat, tells your brain that your stomach is full. Just remember that, nutritious as they are, avocados are high in calories-stick to snacking on half the fruit (about 140 calories) each time.

Legumes
Legumes
A serving of beans, lentils, chickpeas or even peanuts delivers the right feel-full combo of lean protein, complex carbs and good fats. According to Julie McGinnis, MS, RD, a registered dietitian, certified herbalist and owner of The Gluten Free Bistro in Boulder, CO, research has shown that this trio can keep blood sugar stable. “And stable blood sugar means getting a full feeling-and keeping it,” she says.

Cayenne Pepper
Cayenne Pepper
This potent spice is a proven appetite suppressant. Researchers from Purdue University in West Lafayette, IN, found that people who added half a teaspoon of the red pepper to a meal ate 60 fewer calories at their next meal. Bonus: Sprinkling half a teaspoon of cayenne pepper over some food can cause your body to burn an extra 10 calories. Ay, caramba!

Water
Water
There are lots of reasons to raise your glass for water. H2O is critical for keeping organs, joints, tissues and the digestive system functioning well, but it can also curb hunger, says Elizabeth DeRobertis, MS, RD, CDN, CDE, a registered dietitian in Harrison, NY. In fact, one study showed that participants who drank two cups of water before a meal ate 75 – 90 fewer calories than people who drank no water at all.

Greek Yogurt
Greek Yogurt
Rich in calcium and low in sugar, Greek yogurt is protein-packed-a typical six-ounce serving has 15 – 20 grams, which is twice the amount in regular yogurt and about the same as in a piece of lean meat. “The protein in foods is one of the main factors in feeling satisfied,” says Kaye. “Protein-rich foods also contain some fat in varying amounts, which also keeps you full for a longer period.”

Soup
Soup
Eat more soup, experience fewer cravings? Absolutely, according to recent research from Pennsylvania State University. In the study, women who ate a serving of low-calorie chicken and rice soup as a morning snack (don’t knock it ’til you’ve tried it!) ate 100 fewer calories at lunch than women who started their day with chicken-and-rice casserole. You can thank soup’s high water content for that full feeling-though the fiber-filled veggies and hot temperature don’t hurt (dietitians say that sipping warm liquids can curb your appetite). Make sure to slurp broth-based soups, not creamy ones, which can be fatty and highly caloric, says DeRobertis.

Almonds
Almonds
All nuts have heart-healthy fats, but almonds contain the most fiber per serving, which can keep you fuller, longer. “Eating about 15 almonds between lunch and dinner can stave off that 4 P.M. energy dip, helping you avoid those cookies in the break room,” says Kaye. Interestingly, one study suggested that our bodies may not absorb all of the fat in almonds, which might lead to an overall lower calorie intake when eating them. Still, don’t overload on these snacks. “Eating too many almonds spoils your appetite for your next meal and contributes significant calories to your daily intake,” says Kaye.

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Healthiest meal ever: After editing thousands of claims, scientists serve up a superdish

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By SEAN POULTER

It’s not exactly what you could call fast food. In fact, it took years of effort.

Food researchers pored over some 4,000 health claims used by manufacturers and supermarkets to tempt shoppers into buying their products.

These were whittled down to only 222 that were judged to have basis in scientific fact – and from those they have concocted a menu that is being hailed as the healthiest ever.

It includes a series of superfoods that can provide you not only with a filling main meal but also plenty of extra snacks and treats with equal health- promoting benefits.

And if you’re a follower of that popular belief that eating healthily has to be boring, think again.

This menu promises to be appetising and tasty too.

It was created by scientists at Leatherhead Food Research, an independent British organisation, using the 222 surviving health claims which have now been cleared by EU food watchdogs.

Health-giving components include Omega 3 fish oils, which are good for cholesterol, and folates, found in high-fibre multigrain bread and which boost the brain and developing babies in the womb.

Healthiest meal

The menu starts with a fresh and smoked salmon terrine, which contains Omega 3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which is good for the arteries, heart and brain.

An accompanying mixed leaf salad with a dressing of extra virgin olive oil is good for maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels. Chicken casserole with lentils and mixed vegetables is a particularly nutritious main meal, with the study showing it could safely make 80 official health claims.

The protein in it ‘contributes to a growth in muscle mass’, while the pantothenic acid found in lentils can help reduce tiredness and ‘improve mental performance’.

Walnuts
Walnuts are part of the healthiest meal ever according to scientists

For dessert, a live yogurt-based blancmange topped with walnuts and a sugar-free caramel-flavoured sauce scores well as being good for digestion, the teeth and blood glucose control.
The inclusion of guar gum in the dessert is said to help in the maintenance of normal blood cholesterol, while lactulose ‘contributes to an acceleration of intestinal transit’.

The walnuts in the topping are a superfood – consumption of 30g a day, or a small handful, is proven to ‘contribute to the improvement of the elasticity of blood vessels’.

The scientists also included their own sports drink creation which could genuinely claim to boost performance. Its many ingredients include micro nutrients such as biotin, calcium, zinc, chromium copper, iron, potassium, selenium, and magnesium.

Biotin, for example, can help the metabolism, the nervous system, skin and hair, while calcium is good for muscle function and the bones.

Salad
Eat your greens: The study showed that salad as well as berries and nuts are a vital part of a healthy diet, so there is no escape from vegetables

Other recommendations include a concoction for dieters – a mixed berry shake that serves as a meal replacement.

Its ingredients include Glucomannan, which contributes to weight loss for someone on a calorie controlled or energy restricted diet.

For cold days or nights, there is a velvety hot chocolate drink containing melatonin, which helps send you to sleep quickly at night.

As a final helpful thought, the experts recommend activated charcoal tablets, which contribute to ‘reducing excessive flatulence after eating’.

Dr Paul Berryman, the Leatherhead chief executive, conceived the idea as a perfect airline meal, but says the ingredients and dishes would work just as well in the home.

‘We have also shown that healthy foods do not have to be dull,’ he said. ‘We carry out thousands of consumer taste tests a year and one thing is clear. No matter how healthy, if foods do not taste good they will not sell.’

18 Most Sickening Food Ingredients

Gross stuff in food

News about gross-out ingredients like pink slime and ammonia (more about both later) got us thinking: What other surprises lurk in the food we eat? We put that question to food safety as well as food manufacturing experts, and it turns out all kinds of things go into refined and processed foods that you wouldn’t willingly put in your mouth. Here’s a few…read at your own risk!

That’s not to say it isn’t safe to eat. The Food and Drug Administration and other agencies spend lots of time and energy to make sure you’re not eating stuff that will kill you. But the idea that something seems “just plain wrong” often isn’t part of the calculation.

Here’s a list of food ingredients that rate high in the yuck factor.

Gelatin

Gelatin

What it is: Vegetarians prepare to be shocked! The same stuff that puts the jiggle in Jello and other gelatin-based products is derived from collagen, a protein often collected from animal skins.

The source varies depending on the type of food, says Andrew L. Milkowsi, PhD, adjunct professor of animal sciences at the University of Wisconsin Madison. The gelatin in desserts, for instance, comes mainly from pig skin.

Where you’ll find it: Gelatin, which is a thickening agent, can also be found in frosted cereals, yogurt, candy, and some types of sour cream. (Check the label.)

Gross-out factor: High for vegetarians, low for everyone else.

Mechanically separated meat

Mechanically separated meat

What it is: Mechanically separated meat is what’s left over after the meat clinging to the bones of chicken or pork are forced through a sieve-like structure using high pressure. “It looks like a paste or batter,” says Sarah A. Klein, a staff attorney with the Food Safety Program at the Center for Science in the Public Interest. “You have crushed bits of bone and cartilage and other things that can end up in that final paste.”

Because of the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, mechanically separated beef is no longer allowed in human food.

Where you’ll find it: Some hot dogs and other products (again, check the label)

Gross-out factor: High

Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide

What it is: We have carbon monoxide detectors in our homes for a reason: this odorless gas can be deadly. But the same stuff that comes from the exhaust pipe of your vehicle is also used in packaging ground beef and some fish like tilapia and tuna. It helps them retain their youthful blush, says Patty Lovera, assistant director of Food & Water Watch.

Where you’ll find it: Carbon monoxide is injected into plastic wrap after all the air is sucked out to block the process of oxidation that can turn pink meat brown. The process is considered safe for humans although it isn’t widely used anymore, says Lovera. Consumer groups have objected to the treatment’s potential to mask meat spoilage.

Gross-out factor: Medium

Shellac

Shellac

What it is: Candy lovers, cover your eyes: pretty, shiny treats like jelly beans come at a price. They’re often coated with shellac, a sticky substance derived from secretions of the female Kerria lacca, an insect native to Thailand.

Where you’ll find it: Shellac makes jelly beans, candy corn, and other hard-coated candy look shiny. It may be called a “confectioner’s glaze” on the packaging. So sweet, and yet so sick.

Gross-out factor: Low

Saltwater injections

Saltwater injections

What it is: Saltwater is fine in the ocean, but injected into food? Believe it! Too much salt can contribute to high blood pressure and other health problems, so less is better. But in a practice called plumping, manufacturers inject salt and other ingredients into raw meat (mostly chicken) to enhance flavor and increase the weight of the meat before it’s sold.

Where you’ll find it: In packaged meat, and you should avoid it! Check the fine print and the nutrition facts label. Meat that’s been injected may say “flavored with up to 10% of a solution” or “up to 15% chicken broth.” Regular chicken has about 40 to 70 mg of sodium per 4-ounce serving, while plumped chicken can contain 5 times or more than that amount, or 300 mg and up.

Gross-out factor: High, for health reasons

Viruses

Viruses

What it is: Don’t viruses make us sick? Well yes, but bacteriophages —tiny bacteria-killing viruses—actually help us by making bacteria sick. First approved for use on food in 2006, bacteriophages infect food-contaminating germs, not humans, says Milkowski.

Where you’ll find it: Manufacturers spray these on ready-to-eat meat and deli products that are sold in sealed plastic pouches. The bacteriophage products come in two types: One that combats E. coli and the other Listeria bacteria. (Only the second is used on food; the first is used to spray cattle.) Check the ingredient list for the words “bacteriophage preparation.”

Gross-out factor: Low

Ammonia

Ammonia

What it is: Ammonia is a strong smelling chemical found in household cleaning products, but it’s also used as gas to kill germs in low-grade fatty beef trimmings.

“The trim (of animal meat) is prone to having more bacteria on it,” Lovera explains. “They use ammonia as a kill step to deal with the bacteria during processing.”

Where you’ll find it: This controversial practice started around 2001, and the resulting product—sometimes called pink slime—is used as a filler in ground beef.

Gross-out factor: High

Pink slime

Pink slime

What it is: Pink slime is a product derived from the bits of meat clinging to fat, which are separated out by melting the fat away and spinning in a centrifuge.

The result is a pinkish substance called lean finely textured beef that’s treated with ammonia gas to kill germs, and then added to ground beef as a filler. Lots of ground beef, as in 10 billion pounds per year.

Where you’ll find it: Recent furor over the concoction has caused companies like Wendy’s and McDonald’s to report that their hamburgers are pink slime-free and some supermarkets like Safeway and Wegmans to say they will no longer carry it. Schools participating in the National School Lunch Program now have the option of ordering beef without it, according to the USDA.

Gross-out factor: High

Bisphenol A

Bisphenol A

What it is: Though the chemical bisphenol A, or BPA, has been removed from most hard plastics (including baby bottles and sippy cups), it can still be found in the sealant in the lining of some cans, says Lovera.

Where you’ll find it: “This can be especially problematic with acidic foods like tomatoes,” she says. “The concern is that it leaks into foods.”

BPA has been linked to brain, behavior and prostate problems, especially in fetuses and children.

Gross-out factor: High

Castoreum

Castoreum

What it is: Brace yourself—this food flavoring is extracted from the castor sac scent glands of the male or female beaver, which are located near the anus. According to Milkowski, the substance is pretty expensive (think about what it probably takes to obtain it) and is more common in perfume than in actual foods.

Where you’ll find it: While it sounds downright disgusting, the FDA says it’s GRAS, meaning it’s “generally recognized as safe.” You won’t see this one on the food label because it’s generally listed as “natural flavoring.” It’s natural all right—naturally icky.

Gross-out factor: Medium

Sodium benzoate

Sodium benzoate

What it is: Did you ever take a slug of soda or juice and feel a tingling sensation in your throat? That may be sodium benzoate. This common preservative is also generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the FDA, meaning it shouldn’t pose a hazard. That doesn’t mean you shouldn’t avoid it: a 2007 study published in The Lancet found that a mixture of sodium benzoate and food dyes was linked to hyperactive behavior in children, although it was hard to tell if the dyes or the preservative were to blame.

Where you’ll find it: Soft drinks and other carbonated beverages, fruit juices and jams, salad dressings, condiments, and pickles.

Gross-out factor: Medium

Antibiotics

Antibiotics

What it is: People take antibiotics to kill germs. Livestock get antibiotics because they grow bigger and faster—and thus are more lucrative.

Where you’ll find it: “The main concern about overuse of antibiotics in livestock production is the growing problem of antibiotic resistance,” says Lovera. Researchers are concerned about antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the overall environment and in livestock facilities.

But foodborne illnesses can result from resistant bacteria in food, including a ground turkey recall in 2011 (resistant salmonella) as well as a 2012 ground beef recall (also salmonella).

Gross-out factor: High

Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide

What it is: Silicon dioxide is what gets in your bathing suit and your hair at the beach. Affectionately known as sand, it’s also found in food. “It’s used in a lot of things as a flow agent and partly because it does a nice job of absorbing a little bit of atmospheric humidity that would cause clumping in a variety of things,” says Milkowski. Swallowing a little sand at the shore probably never hurt you and it probably won’t hurt you at the dinner table either.

Where you’ll find it: Salts, soups, and coffee creamer.

Gross-out factor: Low

Carmine

Carmine

What it is: Yup, insects again. In your food. When it comes to food, insects are handy for other things besides their shine. They’re good for color too, especially red. Carmine is a red food-coloring that comes from boiled cochineal bugs, which are a type of beetle.

There have been reports that the bug-based coloring can cause severe allergic reactions in some people, including potentially life-threatening anaphylactic reactions, so the FDA now requires that the ingredient be listed clearly on food and cosmetic labels.

Where you’ll find it: Carmine can be found in ice cream, Skittles, Good n’ Plenty, lemonade, and grapefruit juice.

Gross-out factor: High if you’re a vegan, medium for the rest of us

Propylene glycol

Propylene glycol

What it is: This chemical is found in antifreeze, it’s true. But, says Milkowski, “it’s a very, very safe material.” In fact, it’s much safer than a kissing cousin, ethylene glycol, which is particularly toxic to dogs.

Propylene glycol has lubricating properties which aid in making spice concentrates, not to mention condoms. And if you need good mixing in food, this is your compound. “You’ll find things that don’t mix well in water do disperse well in propylene glycol,” says Milkowski.

Where you’ll find it: Sodas, salad dressing, and beer

Gross-out factor: Medium

Cellulose

Cellulose

What it is: Cellulose, derived mainly from wood pulp and cotton, is used in paper ­manufacturing—and sometimes added to food.

Where you’ll find it: Cellulose is added to shredded cheese to keep the strands from sticking together, and also can be found in ice cream. It’s found naturally in corn. Cellulose is “is very innocuous material,” says Milkowsi. “Humans can’t digest it.”

Gross-out factor: Low

Carrageenan

Carrageenan

What it is: Do you eat seaweed? If you said no, prepare for a surprise, because carageenan is everywhere. Extracted from seaweed, carrageenan is a gel used as a thickening agent and emulsifier (keeps food from separating.)

Where you’ll find it: May be injected into raw chicken or other meat as a way to retain water, as well as in dairy products like cottage cheese and ice cream. Chocolate milk often contains carrageenan to keep the cocoa from separating from the milk.

Gross-out factor: Low

Liquid smoke

Liquid smoke

What it is: We worry about smoking and eating too much smoky barbecue. We also wonder, what exactly is liquid smoke, anyway? Liquid smoke is made by burning sawdust and capturing the components in either water or a vegetable oil, explains Milkowski.

Where you’ll find it: The resulting product can be purchased and added to sauces and other foods to give it that—yes—smoky flavor. If you’re used to cooking on an open fire, this might not seem all that gross to you, and manufacturers certainly don’t shy away from it. Liquid Smoke is also added to barbecue products, baked beans, hot dogs, bacon, and beef jerky, among others.

Gross-out factor: Low

Battle of the Superfoods

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From the editors of Runner’s World

Food Fight! In a battle of nutritional superstars, which options offer a healthier edge?

As a health-savvy consumer, you try to toss nutrient-packed foods into your grocery cart. But when you’re deciding between similar-seeming nutritious items (say, turkey or chicken?), you may not know the superior choice. “Food is your fuel,” says Mitzi Dulan, R.D., co-author of The All-Pro Diet. “Selecting the most nutritious options will improve your diet and give you a competitive edge.” While you can’t go wrong eating both quinoa and brown rice, choosing the nutritional champ may give your running the boost it needs. In a healthy-food smackdown, here are our winning picks.

STRAWBERRIES vs. BLUEBERRIES
The winner: Blueberries

Both are health all-stars, but a study in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry reported that blueberries (particularly wild ones) showed the most antioxidant activity of all the fruits tested. “These antioxidants help keep your immune system strong,” says Dulan, “and reduce muscle-tissue damage from exercise.”

HEALTHY CHOICE: Mix blueberries into lean ground beef for burgers. The juicy fruit will help keep the meat moist.

CHICKEN BREAST vs. TURKEY BREAST
The winner: Turkey Breast

Both breast meats are free of saturated fat, but turkey has three additional grams of protein per three-ounce serving, plus more iron (which helps deliver oxygen to muscles) and selenium. “This mineral functions as part of an enzyme called glutathione peroxidase,” says sports dietitian Suzanne Girard Eberle, R.D., author of Endurance Sports Nutrition. This enzyme works as an antioxidant to protect cells from free radicals that may contribute to cancer and heart disease.

HEALTHY CHOICE: Make your own lunch meat to avoid the excess sodium in much deli turkey. Bake turkey breasts, slice them thinly, and add to sandwiches.

PEANUT BUTTER vs. ALMOND BUTTER
The winner: Almond butter

Almond butter has more calcium and magnesium, a mineral that’s often lacking in runners’ diets and is important for muscle contraction. While the two nut butters contain about the same amount of fat, the almond variety has 60 percent more monounsaturated fat. “When consumed in place of saturated fat,” says Dulan, “monounsaturated fat lowers harmful LDL levels to help decrease heart disease and stroke risk.” Almond butter also has three times more vitamin E, an antioxidant that may reduce cancer risk.

HEALTHY CHOICE: Use almond butter instead of PB on your bagel. Blend it into a postrun smoothie, or stir it into oatmeal.

SPINACH vs. KALE
The winner: Kale

Kale’s nutritional might would win over even Popeye. Gram for gram, kale contains four times more vitamin C, and one and a half times the amount of immune boosting vitamin A and vitamin K. “Vitamin K ensures that blood clots properly,” says Eberle, “but it’s also needed to make a bone protein essential for strong, healthy bones.” Kale contains three times more lutein and zeaxanthin, antioxidants deposited in the retina that work together to protect eye health.

HEALTHY CHOICE: Make kale “chips”: Spread bite-sized pieces on a baking sheet. Spray with olive oil, season with salt, and bake for 15 minutes (until crisp).

COW’S MILK vs. GOAT’S MILK
The winner: Goat’s milk

When Spanish researchers compared cow’s and goat’s milk from animals raised under similar conditions, they found that both have the same amount of essential amino acids needed to repair and build muscle. But goat’s milk contains a larger percentage of omega-3 fats, as well as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and conjugated linoleic acid (or CLA). Studies suggest CLA has a number of effects, including lowering cancer risk, improving bone health, and helping reduce body fat.

HEALTHY CHOICE: Use tangy, slightly sweet goat’s milk (found at health-food stores) the same way as cow’s milk-on cereal, in smoothies, and when baking.

WHEAT BREAD vs. RYE BREAD
The winner: Rye bread

According to a study in the Nutrition Journal, researchers in Sweden found that participants who ate rye bread for breakfast experienced less hunger later in the day compared with those who ate wheat bread. Hanna Isaksson, the lead study author, believes that rye’s ability to quell hunger is due to its high fiber count. Rye can have up to eight grams of fiber per slice-even more than whole wheat.

HEALTHY CHOICE: Rye bread often contains some refined wheat flour, so to get the most fiber, buy “100 percent rye” loaves or make sure whole rye flour or meal is the first ingredient.

QUICK HITS

Here are some some more superfood winners.

Quinoa beats brown rice. Quinoa has three extra grams of protein per cooked cup, plus more fiber, iron, and magnesium.

Greek yogurt beats regular yogurt. The Greek variety has about twice as much protein as traditional types.

Green tea beats coffee. It’s bursting with antioxidants (such as EGCG) that help ward off diabetes and certain cancers.

Pork tenderloin beats beef tenderloin. The pork version has less saturated fat, more B vitamins, and is cheaper.

Goat cheese beats feta cheese. Goat cheese has nearly half the cholesterol and a third less sodium.

Orange beats apple. They have similar amounts of calories and fiber, but oranges have 12 times as much vitamin C.

Red pepper beats green pepper. It boasts eight times the vitamin A, which keeps your immune system strong.

Flaxseed beats flaxseed oil. The seeds have lots of magnesium, potassium, selenium, and fiber.